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28 June 2014

Asteroid / Meteoroid Airbursts in Recorded History

Asteroid / Meteoroid Airbursts in Recorded World History
*subject to editing 28JUN2014
modified data/text excerpts from Original Data/Article at Wikipedia

Date, Location, Coordinates, Yield of explosion (TNT equivalent), Height of explosion, Notes

mid-Atlantic Ocean
11.7°N 40.3°W
Asteroid 2014 AA, discovered on 1 January 2014 by Richard Kowalski at the Mount Lemmon Survey, the second asteroid detected before Earth impact.[42]

heard in Montreal, Ottawa, and New York state [37] [38] [39] [40]
< 1 tonne of TNT (< 4.2 GJ) [41] Montreal bolide 

North Atlantic Ocean
10–20 kilotons Infrasound detection [29] 

near Chelyabinsk, Russia
500 kilotonnes of TNT (2,100 TJ) [34] Estimated 30–50 km [35] Chelyabinsk meteor [36] (Largest meteor airburst known since Tunguska in 1908) 

air burst centered near La Grange, California
4 kilotonnes of TNT (17 TJ) [32] 30–47 km [33] Sutter's Mill meteorite. Numerous fragments from object recovered. Analysis determined it was a Carbonaceous chondrite. 

South Pacific Ocean
>20 kilotons Infrasound detection [29] 

coastal region of Bone Regency in South Sulawesi, Indonesia
31–50 kilotonnes of TNT (130–210 TJ) 25 km (16 mi) No meteoritic material found (most likely fell into the ocean).[31] Occurred ~03:00 UTC; ~11:00 local time.[31] 

Nubian Desert, Sudan
0.9–2.1 kilotonnes of TNT (3.8–8.8 TJ) 37 km (23 mi) 2008 TC3, the first asteroid detected before impacting Earth;discovered by Richard Kowalski at the Mount Lemmon Survey,. It was the first time that an asteroid impact had been predicted prior to its entry into the atmosphere as a meteor.[43]

Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland
40 km (25 mi) Superbolide that was observed as far as northern Lapland.[30] Meteoritic material was suspected to have landed southeast of Oulu but none has been found.[citation needed] 

10–20 kilotons Infrasound detection [29] 

Indian Ocean
10–20 kilotons Infrasound detection [29] 

200 km off shore Queen Maud Land, Antarctica
69°S 27°E
12 kilotonnes of TNT (50 TJ) 28–30 km (17–19 mi) Asteroid 7–10 meters in diameter. Coordinates are for dust trail observed an hour after event by NASA's Aqua satellite. Event was observed also by military satellites and by infrasound stations. Dust was observed 7 hours after event by LIDAR in Davis Station.[28] 

The Vitim River basin near the town of Bodaybo, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia
58.27°N 113.45°E
0.2–2 kilotonnes of TNT (0.84–8.37 TJ) 30km Vitim event or Bodaybo event [27] 

Mediterranean Sea, 230 km north-northeast of Benghazi, Libya
34°N 21°E
12–26 kilotonnes of TNT (50–109 TJ)[25] [26] [23] Eastern Mediterranean event 

over Whitehorse, Yukon
1.7 kiloton [23] One airburst at ~08:00, fragments recovered Tagish Lake meteorite.[24] 

150 km south of Nuuk, Greenland
>0.064 kilotonnes of TNT (0.27 TJ) >25 km (16 mi) One airburst at 46 km, three more breakups detected between 25 and 30 km. No remains found so far. Yield only based on luminosity, i.e. the total energy might have been considerably larger.[22] 

300 km south of Kosrae, Micronesia
11 kilotonnes of TNT (46 TJ) 21–34 km (13–21 mi) Marshall Islands fireball (4–14 meters in diameter). Two fragments exploded at 34 km and 21 km of altitude. This impact was observed by space based infrared (IR) sensors operated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and by visible wavelength sensors operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).[21] 

Cando, Spain Cando event 

Lugo, Northern Italy
>10 kilotonnes of TNT (42 TJ) 30 km Superbolide airburst caused by the breakup of a low density meteoroid traveling at approximately 26 km/s.[20] 

Vilna, Alberta
0.6 kilotonnes of TNT (2.5 TJ) 13 km (8 mi) Two very small fragments found - 48 milligrams (0.0017 oz) and 94 milligrams (0.0033 oz). Stored at University of Alberta, in Edmonton.[18] Photographed.[19] 

Lake Huron, Michigan–Ontario
0.6 kilotonnes of TNT (2.5 TJ) 13 km (8 mi) No material from meteorite found. Photographed bolide body.[17] 

Revelstoke, British Columbia
0.6 kilotonnes of TNT (2.5 TJ) 13 km (8 mi) 1 g (0.035 oz) material from meteorite found. Sometimes placed in Southeastern Canada on May 31.[16] 

Approximately 1,900 kilometres (1,200 mi) south of South Africa51°S 24°E
176–356 kilotonnes of TNT (740–1,490 TJ) A bolide was detected infrasonically approximately 1,100 kilometres (680 mi) west-south-west of the Prince Edward Islands off the coast of South Africa by a U.S. government instrument network designed to detect atmospheric explosions.[15] 

Sikhote-Alin Mountains in eastern Siberia, Primorsky Krai, Russia
10 kilotonnes of TNT (42 TJ) Sikhote-Alin meteorite. Estimated explosive yield of 10 kt equivalent.[14]
1941.04.09 Ural mountains, Katav-Ivanovo district of Chelyabinsk region Russia Катавский болид (Katavsky bolide). Residents of several localities had seen a fireball flying at a high speed in the dark sky, followed by roaring likened to the sound of a speeding steam locomotive. Fragments were left as a result of the event.[citation needed] 

Chicora, Pennsylvania United States
On June 24, 1938 a meteorite fell in the vicinity of Chicora. Named the "Chicora Meteor", the 450+ tonne meteorite exploded approximately twelve miles above the Earth's surface.[13] 

Arroyomolinos de León, Spain
190 kilotonnes of TNT (790 TJ) 15.7 km (9.8 mi) Shattered windows. Likely connected to the δ-Arietids meteor shower.[12] 

Curuçá River Area, Amazonas, Brazil
9–5,000 kilotonnes of TNT (38–20,920 TJ) Generally assumed to be generated by three meteor fragments. An astrobleme of 1 km was found on the ground, but may be related to an older feature.[7][8] [9] [10] [11] It is also known as Brazilian Tunguska or Curuçá Event.[9] 

Southern Michigan and Northern Indiana, USA
42°N 86°W
A gigantic meteor was seen approaching from the east. A brilliant flash of light, thunder and an earthquake lasting 3 minutes were reported. Considerable damage to property and broken windows were reported over a very large area as well as disruption to telegraph, telephone and electrical power systems.[6] 

60 kilometres (37 mi) west-northwest of Vanavara [5] in Yeniseysk Governorate, Russian Empire
10–15 megatonnes of TNT (42,000–63,000 TJ) 8.5 km (5.3 mi) Tunguska event  (Largest meteor airburst known in modern history.)

Near Helsinki in Grand Duchy of Finland, Russian Empire
20 km (12 mi) Produced the largest amount of meteoritic debris ever found on Finnish soil, weighing 328 kilograms in total. Bjurböle Meteorite [4] The heaviest single meteorite weighs 80 kilograms and it is currently located in the Finnish Museum of Natural History.[citation needed] 

Near the Seven Stones reef, off Cornwall in United Kingdom
Exploded over a light vessel, at ~02:00, "showering the deck with cinders."[3] 

Near New York City in United States
The meteor was witnessed by many in the region, including residents of New York City, as it passed overhead. The fireball exploded over Toms River, New Jersey. The concussion from the explosion shook houses miles from the epicenter. The sound from the explosion lasted for nearly two minutes, and was described as continuous cannon fire.[1] [2]

Excerpt -Data Source- Wikipedia- Author/s unknown
article edit incomplete 28JUN2014-

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